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1.5The Paper Format
It is a constructive process to confirm the scientific validity of a research work and prevent wrong information to spread. To ensure that the reviews are carried out objectively, the type of the Peer-Review that is followed by The Compass is Double Blind review wherein neither the authors nor the reviewers know each other. For a paper to be accepted usually 2 acceptances should be received from 2 reviewers.
Peer-Reviewers are subject experts who offer their voluntary services to review manuscripts and give their free advice to the authors. A Reviewer reads a manuscript and gives his/her comments to the Editor who will convey them to the author. The Editor is the link between the Author and the Reviewer.
The process of peer review will enable the authors to see the gaps that exist in their papers to be bridged with more investigation or explanation. While reviewing a paper, the experts will also point out the ambiguity or lack of clarity that may exist in some parts of the paper and recommend improvement. The Reviewers can make suggestions to the authors to enrich the content and make it more useful to the readers. Finally the reviewers will ascertain if the article is of the required quality and meets the objectives of the journal. Hence journals will be able to select and publish the most authentic research findings in the area of their interest. (Springer a, 2021) Since the process of peer-review is time consuming, it may cause delays in publishing papers. Care should be taken the peer-review remains open to new ideas and findings rather than perpetuating some established views.
As a peer reviewer, you are responsible to
Reviewing is a confidential process, hence the Reviewer is expected to maintain the confidentiality of any material submitted to him for his review and will not share the content and his review comments with anyone. If you feel that a colleague is more qualified to review the paper, please inform the Editor to decide. Your comments should be clear and specific by referring to the page and line number of the manuscript. Please provide your comments with respect to the following aspects of the paper: Its scope, appropriateness of the title, abstract, introduction, methodology, data analysis, presentation, findings, conclusions, language, tables/figures and references.
Please Consult for Ethical Norms and Other Guidelines
The Editorial Board is set up to closely work with the Editor to develop the Journal and introduce new ingenuities; they are indeed the ambassadors and the face of the journal. The members are selected for their renowned expertise related to the aims of the Journal. The number of their publications and their academic abilities are the most important criteria for selecting the members. The Board members are appointed for a fixed duration of 2-3 years.
The Objectives of the Editorial Board include
To "plagiarize" means to steal and convey the ideas or words of other persons as your own, without giving credit to the source, It also means to present an idea or research as new and original while the idea is derived from an earlier work carried out by someone else. When research students or teachers are drafting their research manuscripts, they refer to the previously published works. But sometimes unknowingly or inadvertently they end up plagiarising the content. Plagiarism is considered as a serious misconduct. It is necessary that the students/ researchers know about the serious consequences of plagiarising the contents. Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided by simply acknowledging the source and citing the reference. Therefore it is very important that the students understand what is plagiarism and types of plagiarism, what are the consequences and how to avoid plagiarism. (Enago Academy Team, n.d.)
There are twelve different types of plagiarism, as said in Wilson K. M., 2021. Additionally there are some more types of plagiarism that are given below.
Copying the entire content of the work done by someone else and claiming it as your own original work is considered as Direct plagiarism. It is also known as “word-for-word plagiarism” or “clone plagiarism”.
When the authors pay someone else to write an article or research paper for themselves it constitutes to Hired Plagiarism. This also includes buying essays from internet sites or essay-writing services and presenting as their own.
When you borrow an essay or a paper from your friend and present as your own, it is borrowed plagiarism. You may have older friends who have taken a course years before from a different instructor. If you use a paper or part of a paper written by a friend for a past course, this is considered borrowed plagiarism.
Reusing your own work from your previous research paper and passing it off as new work. To use the same essay or paper to fulfill two different assignments for two different courses is also considered as self-plagiarism. It refers to the act of using content from one’s own earlier published document without a proper citation.
Mixing someone else’s content, or sentences or text within own work. This is one of the most difficult to identify. It is also known as “patchwork plagiarism” or “patch writing,” This also include the “ Ctrl+C or Copy- Paste” and “ Find-Replace” plagiarism.
This type of plagiarism involves collaborating on a project but acting like it was done alone. A group of students may get together to work on the research for a project and then each write his or her own essay based on the research. Because the work is not entirely original and that of the student claiming it, this is plagiarism.
When you do not give credit to an author or editor who contributes to your work. For instance, if you and your partner work together on the project but only one of you gets credit, the person receiving credit is actually plagiarising some of the work. Additionally, if someone edits your work and makes significant changes in the process, that person should be credited to avoid plagiarism.
In this type of plagiarism, the written document does not contain original work. It is when your paper is based on another paper and uses the same ideas and the same sources.
Outline plagiarism, also called “re-tweet plagiarism,” uses the outline of another paper. This type of plagiarism uses the outline of another paper, i.e. using the same structure with new information. The thesis statement is the same, as well as the basic points in each paragraph are also similar. The sources and actual writing may be unique, but the paper or essay is not entirely original content.
If you use the bibliography from another paper, you are plagiarizing that research. On a similar note, extending a bibliography with sources not used in the paper is a form of plagiarism too.
If your paper mentions primary sources and cites those properly but you use information from secondary sources without citing them, you are committing secondary source plagiarism.
You may come across ideas and forget where you saw them, thinking they are your own. You may even be influenced by the language used in a piece of writing and inadvertently use the same language in your work. This kind of plagiarism is difficult to avoid, but making notes and trying to be aware of what you read can help. (Wilson K. M.,2021)
In this, a person creates a document by copying from various sources and prepare as a single document with the citation. But if the citation is inaccurate or it will lead to non-existing resources then it will be called 404 types of plagiarism.(Somasundaram R.,2021)
Data fabrication and falsification are also considered as serious issues in scientific ethics. Data fabrication is the making up of data and research findings, while data falsification involves changing or omitting data to give a false impression. Both of these schemes are probably among the most serious offenses in scientific research as they challenge the credibility of everyone and everything involved in a research effort. These offenses make it very difficult for scientists to move forward as it is unclear to anyone what if anything is true and can be trusted– can lead students and colleagues to waste precious time, effort, and resources investigating dead ends. (North Eastern University, n.d.)
Plagiarism is considered as a serious offense. Plagiarism can affect the academic and professional reputation of the research student or the teacher. It can have legal as well as monetary repercussions, in terms of loss of job or stopping of research funding. (Enago Academy Team)
As a research student or as a teacher when you are doing research and you are writing a research paper or your thesis, it is important that you present your findings in your own words. As plagiarism is considered as a serious misconduct, it is necessary that you check your content for plagiarism. Manually checking the contents for plagiarism can be very difficult. Plagiarism checker software can help individual writers, students and teachers, protect themselves and their writing against the risk of plagiarism. Plagiarism detection software can help users make sure their writing does not include any instances of plagiarism, protect them from legal risk, and help improve the overall quality of their writing. Such software can come with algorithm-based detection features, plus useful capabilities like writing suggestions and citation generators. (Bouchrika I. ,2020)
There are many free and paid plagiarism detection tools available. Free tools can be great for individuals that need to check their writing for plagiarism in an ad hoc manner, while paid tools are better suited for individuals who write professionally or organizations looking for a solution that can be used across their business. Pricing for paid plagiarism checker and writing tool suites can vary based on a few key things: the number of pages that need to be checked, the number of words that need to be scanned, and the number of users. Most solutions charge either a monthly or annual fee. Prices can range from $20 per month (for between 200 - 3,000 pages and 72K - 800K words) up to $100 or more per month for over 100K pages and millions of words.( Nancy, 2020)